Saturday, April 30, 2016

Blog 10


This research paper looks to expose the fact that the NCAA is exploiting its own athletes, and has been for years. The NCAA uses terms to categorize their athletes as amateurs who cannot be paid in any way, regardless of how much revenue they generate. The unethical nature of these terms were exposed in the O'Bannon v. NCAA case, which kick started the movement toward a more rational and fair system for the student athletes. The NCAA is using deceitful accounting techniques to reduce its profits. The free education that is being offered to student athletes is very poor quality, and is not even guaranteed. With the increasing amount of revenues being generated by the NCAA each year, it is now time to switch the label of college sports from an extra curricular activity to a job.

                                                                            Works Cited
Berkowitz, Steve. “Judge releases ruling on O'Bannon case: NCAA loses.” USA Today Sports. 8 Aug. 2014. Web. 29 Apr. 2016  < >
DeMars, Bob, Dir. “The Business of Amateurs.” 19 Apr. 2016. Film
Dodd, Dennis “Pac-12 study reveals athletes 'too exhausted to study effectively.” CBS Sports. 21 Apr. 2015. Web. 7 Mar. 2016. <>
Finkel, Ross, Dir. “Schooled: The Price of College Sports.” 16 Oct. 2013. Film. 
Fontana, Anthony. “The Super Bowl Generates How Much Money.” Quicken Loans. 1 Feb. 2013. Web 27 Apr. 2016. <>
Hunsberger, Peter K. “What is a Blue Chip Recruit Worth? Estimating the Marginal Revenue Product of College Football Quarterbacks.” Journal of Sports Economics. 16.6 (2015): 664-690. Online.
Kahn, Lawrence M. "Markets: Cartel Behavior and Amateurism in College Sports." Journal of Economic Perspectives 21.1 (2007): 209-226. Business Source Premier. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
Muenzen, Kristen R. “Weakening Its Own Defense? The NCAA's Version of Amateurism” Marquette Sports Law Review. 13. 2 (2003): 258-288. EBSCO: Academic Search Premier (EBSCO EIT) (XML). Web. 28 Mar. 2016.
Nocera. Joe. Indentured: The Inside Story of the Rebellion Against the NCAA. Penguin Publishing Group, 2016. Print.  
Parker, Tim. “How Much Does the NCAA Make off March Madness?” Investopedia. 24 Mar. 2016. Web 25 Apr. 2016. <>
Strachan, Maxwell “NCAA Schools Can Absolutely Afford To Pay College Athletes, Economists Say” Huffpost Sports. The Huffington Post. 27 Mar.  2015. Web 26 Apr. 2016. <>
Vanderford, Ryan. “Pay-For-Play: An Age-Old Struggle for Appropriate Reform in a Changing Landscape between Employer and Employee.” Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal. 24.3 (2015): 805-838. EBSCO: Academic Search Premier (EBSCO EIT) (XML). Web 29 Feb. 2016.
Young, Elise. “The Gridiron Playoff?” Inside Higher ED. Inside Higher ED, 3 Jul. 2012. Web 27 Apr. 2016. <>

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Literature review #5

Nocera, Joe "What Tournament? N.C.A.A.’s Biggest Event May Be at a Higher Court" The New York Times. 22 Mar. 2016. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <>

This article is explaining the current state of the O'Bannon v NCAA case. It details the evolution of the case and what it turned into. The trial now has became not only a trial to get O'Bannon compensated, but is also putting the NCAA's idea of "amateurism" on trial as well. The NCAA dodged a bullet in not having to allow players rights to sell their brand/ image/ likenesses, but they do have to give stipends up to $5,000 to some players.
Joe Nocera, writer for the New York Times

Key Terms:
commercial exploitation- student athletes getting taken advantage of through professional businesses that are using their images to create revenue.

Ninth Circuit- The United States Courts for the Ninth Circuit consists of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals along with district and bankruptcy courts in the 15 federal judicial districts that comprise the circuit, and associated administrative units that provide various court services.
"Although she ruled that universities could set up trust funds, she capped it at $5,000."
"In a 2-1 decision, the court agreed with Wilken that the NCAA's rules amounted to antitrust violations."
"In other words, the NCAA's amateur rules were illegal- but amateurism had to be preserved."

This article is very valuable for my paper because it is a recent article about the Ed O'Bannon case, which is my main case that I am looking into and explaining. This is the most recent article regarding this case that I have found, and this case is always changing and growing so it is a hard case to follow and really get a grasp on. This article will help me to do just that. 

Blog 9 Argument & Counter argument

My main argument so far is that college athletes deserve to be paid. With the amount of revenue they create, they deserve a piece of the pie. Stipends are a good start to paying college athletes (they can get paid up to 5k a year) but this is not enough. The amount that they receive should be proportional to the amount they generate. Obviously there can never be a fixed rate on how much athletes should receive, but some sort of system needs to be developed. The counter arguments that I am going to attack are given from the NCAA, and the three main arguments for not paying college athletes being 1. they are amateurs 2. they get free education already and 3. there is not enough money to pay these athletes. In each of these arguments presented by the NCAA, I will line up effective counter arguments to further my point.

Monday, April 4, 2016

Blog #8 Case


The case that I am using for my paper is the O'Bannon vs  The NCAA case. This case is very popular and perfect for my argument that the NCAA should pay athletes. Ed O'Bannon, starter on the 1995 UCLA National championship basketball team. O'Bannon saw himself portrayed in a video game and the character had all the same attributes as O'Bannon. O'Bannon filed a lawsuit against the NCAA, and later this escalated into a lawsuit on behalf of all D1 football and basketball players. The suit argued that once a student athlete graduates, they should be entitled to receive compensation for their image portrayed by the NCAA on TV and in video games. The case has not yet reached a final verdict, but it will be very useful for my argument.

Helpful Links

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Blog 7 Frame

Some concepts that I am using to help make sense of my project are the terms "Student-athlete" and "amateurism". I am using these terms because they are crucial components when debating the topic of whether or not college athletes should be paid. These terms are created and used by the NCAA for their own benefit to keep control on how things are run in their association and it has gotten them out of legal issues as well. A small story that I am going to incorporate into my paper is about how the NCAA created the term "student-athlete" back in the 50's to get out of having to give employee compensation to an athlete for injuries he sustained playing football. I will also break down what is considered to be the "Principle of Amateurism" as defined by the NCAA, and how they actually go against the very statement that they provided.

Blog 6 Visual

These visuals are all graphs that help illustrate the concept of how college athletes generate millions of dollars in revenues, but are not getting compensated for their actions. The first graph shows how successful "March Madness" is for NCAA basketball, and how it is the leading broadcast in march of 2013. The middle graph illustrates the gap between revenues vs scholarship expenses, which is an astounding number for most years and revenues seemed to be increasing at a much higher rate than scholarship expenses. The last Graph shows the revenue and player salaries of athletes in the NCAA, NFL, and NBA. It makes a strong point when you can see how much the NCAA is actually making and paying their players absolutely nothing. 

Monday, March 21, 2016

Literature Review 4

Lit Review 4

Kahn, Lawrence M. "Markets: Cartel Behavior And Amateurism In College Sports." Journal Of Economic       Perspectives 21.1 (2007): 209-226. Business Source Premier. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.

This paper discusses evidence on whether the NCAA has exercised cartel power. It also review evidence on the indirect effects of college sports on the rest of the university, including how sports revenues affect the rest of the university. The author investigates pay of coaches, assistant coaches, and student athletes. He compares the pay with what could be possible, what they deserve, what is restricting proper pay, and takes a look at illegal (under the table) pay as well.

Author: Lawrence M. Kahn is Professor of Labor Economics and Collective Bargaining, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Key Terms:
"Monopoly"- The author refers to the NCAA as a monopoly over college sports. In the business world a monopoly is something that the government tries to avoid because it allows one entity to command the rules and prices of the goods/services. This is no different with the NCAA.

"Division I"- D1  can be further segmented into I-A,  I-AA, and I-AAA. Division I schools with football are classified as I-A or I-AA. For membership in Division I-A, a school must have a football team which satisfies attendance criteria. Division I schools without football programs are classified I-AAA.

"Total ticket revenues for football and men’s basketball were $757 million in 1999, which exceeded ticket sales for professional baseball, football, and hockey that year" (1)

"Both big-time college athletics and professional athletics have highly paid coaches and expensive facilities for games and practices. However, while professional teams are owned by investor groups and feature highly paid athletes, college teams are “owned” by colleges and universities whose official mission is not primarily athletic accomplishment and they feature athletes who receive only free tuition, board, and a small stipend for living expenses—if the athletes even receive a full scholarship, which not all of them do." (8)

"Another piece of evidence that the NCAA is restricting pay comes from the widespread incidence of under-the-table payments for top college athletes. For example, Sack (1991) surveyed 3500 current and retired NFL players in 1989, of whom 1182 responded. He found that 31 percent of them received under-the-table payments while in college and 48 percent claimed they knew of others who received them." (9)

This is a strong article that I could use in my paper because the author shares the same beliefs that I do on the subject of paying college athletes. The author has many facts that he implements into his arguments, and he examines both sides of the argument to further his point. I will draw from certain areas of Kahn's writing to further my paper.